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將localhost變成自己喜歡的網址(nginx設定)

透過系統內建的hosts設定來完成將localhost設定成有網址的內容,但如果需要同時讓多個網頁都有網址,那透過原本的hosts是無法進行的(因為他僅能將你的要求轉到80port),就要倚靠其他工具的幫忙了

在這邊介紹nginx要怎麼設定

環境安裝#

  1. 先到nginx官網下載
    • 建議下載stable(穩定版)的,會相對比較沒有問題發生
  2. 將下載下來的檔案解壓縮就可以了

使用說明#

  1. 透過terminal開啟這個資料夾
    • 在這個資料夾中按下shift+滑鼠右鍵,點選使用powershell開啟
  2. 在裡面打上以下內容就啟動了
start .\nginx.exe
  1. 啟動後打上localhost就可以看到以下畫面
  2. 需要更多說明可以在裡面打上以下命令即可
.\nginx.exe -h
PS C:\Users\User\Desktop\nginx-1.18.0> .\nginx.exe -h
nginx version: nginx/1.18.0
Usage: nginx [-?hvVtTq] [-s signal] [-c filename] [-p prefix] [-g directives]
Options:
-?,-h : this help
-v : show version and exit
-V : show version and configure options then exit
-t : test configuration and exit
-T : test configuration, dump it and exit
-q : suppress non-error messages during configuration testing
-s signal : send signal to a master process: stop, quit, reopen, reload
-p prefix : set prefix path (default: NONE)
-c filename : set configuration file (default: conf/nginx.conf)
-g directives : set global directives out of configuration file
  1. 常用功能
.\nginx.exe -s stop # stop nginx
.\nginx.exe -s reload # reload nginx

設定說明#

在nginx的主要設定檔為nginx.conf 位置在conf/nginx.conf 將這個檔案用記事本或是vscode等文字編輯器打開,會看到以下內容

#user nobody;
worker_processes 1;
#error_log logs/error.log;
#error_log logs/error.log notice;
#error_log logs/error.log info;
#pid logs/nginx.pid;
events {
worker_connections 1024;
}
http {
include mime.types;
default_type application/octet-stream;
#log_format main '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
# '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
# '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"';
#access_log logs/access.log main;
sendfile on;
#tcp_nopush on;
#keepalive_timeout 0;
keepalive_timeout 65;
#gzip on;
server {
listen 80;
server_name localhost;
#charset koi8-r;
#access_log logs/host.access.log main;
location / {
root html;
index index.html index.htm;
}
#error_page 404 /404.html;
# redirect server error pages to the static page /50x.html
#
error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;
location = /50x.html {
root html;
}
# proxy the PHP scripts to Apache listening on 127.0.0.1:80
#
#location ~ \.php$ {
# proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1;
#}
# pass the PHP scripts to FastCGI server listening on 127.0.0.1:9000
#
#location ~ \.php$ {
# root html;
# fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;
# fastcgi_index index.php;
# fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME /scripts$fastcgi_script_name;
# include fastcgi_params;
#}
# deny access to .htaccess files, if Apache's document root
# concurs with nginx's one
#
#location ~ /\.ht {
# deny all;
#}
}
# another virtual host using mix of IP-, name-, and port-based configuration
#
#server {
# listen 8000;
# listen somename:8080;
# server_name somename alias another.alias;
# location / {
# root html;
# index index.html index.htm;
# }
#}
# HTTPS server
#
#server {
# listen 443 ssl;
# server_name localhost;
# ssl_certificate cert.pem;
# ssl_certificate_key cert.key;
# ssl_session_cache shared:SSL:1m;
# ssl_session_timeout 5m;
# ssl_ciphers HIGH:!aNULL:!MD5;
# ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
# location / {
# root html;
# index index.html index.htm;
# }
#}
}

我們要設定的部分是http的部分,所以將http中的server新增一個

server {
listen 80; # 監聽的port
server_name dev.127.0.0.1.xip.io; # 打上瀏覽器上的網址
#charset koi8-r;
#access_log logs/host.access.log main;
location / {
proxy_pass http://localhost:4000; # 將這個網址轉往的目標port號
}
}

在監聽的port號上,因為希望是直接輸入網址即可跳轉,所以要設定80才可以,這點要特別注意

另外,server_name不能重複命名,另外,因為這樣服務是做一個模擬的proxy server,在server_name上要特別加上127.0.0.1.xip.io才有辦法將這段網址的proxy server指向127.0.0.1 因此,網址只能是xxxx.127.0.0.1.xip.io

所以最後的設定檔會如下

#user nobody;
worker_processes 1;
#error_log logs/error.log;
#error_log logs/error.log notice;
#error_log logs/error.log info;
#pid logs/nginx.pid;
events {
worker_connections 1024;
}
http {
include mime.types;
default_type application/octet-stream;
#log_format main '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
# '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
# '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"';
#access_log logs/access.log main;
sendfile on;
#tcp_nopush on;
#keepalive_timeout 0;
keepalive_timeout 65;
#gzip on;
server {
listen 80;
server_name dev.127.0.0.1.xip.io;
#charset koi8-r;
#access_log logs/host.access.log main;
location / {
proxy_pass http://localhost:4000;
}
}
# another virtual host using mix of IP-, name-, and port-based configuration
#
#server {
# listen 8000;
# listen somename:8080;
# server_name somename alias another.alias;
# location / {
# root html;
# index index.html index.htm;
# }
#}
# HTTPS server
#
#server {
# listen 443 ssl;
# server_name localhost;
# ssl_certificate cert.pem;
# ssl_certificate_key cert.key;
# ssl_session_cache shared:SSL:1m;
# ssl_session_timeout 5m;
# ssl_ciphers HIGH:!aNULL:!MD5;
# ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
# location / {
# root html;
# index index.html index.htm;
# }
#}
}

設定完成後,進行reload就可以看到成功跳轉的畫面了!!